Pathogenesis of Coronavirus
When the virus is outside of the host body they are not able to resist the destruction factors, be it temperature, as they inactive outside of the host, the host being an obligatory parasite. You may say they are unarmed when in the environment. How Coronavirus affects the human body and its Treatment A unique feature of this virus causes both upper and lowers respiratory tract infections.
Entry and attachment
After entry into the body via aerosol transmission or any other transmission it attaches to a specific cellular receptor (ACE-2 located in lungs on the surface of type 2 alveolar cells) via the spikes protein.
- Changes in alveolar cells and replication of the virus
Transformational changes, leading to the fusion between the virus and the cell membrane. It causes the release of nucleocapsid into the host cells, and alveolar cells start to die.
- Transcription and Translation
Alteration of DNA and production of proteins and certain specific enzymes.Alteration of cell function and production.
- Cytotoxic effects
Release of excess cytokines and chemokines-1B, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Then acute phase reactants increase like ESR, CRP, and Procalcitonin.
- C-reactive protein
CRP is a protein made by the liver and sent to the bloodstream. Blood levels may be higher when you inflammation or infections. Because CRP levels often go up before you have symptoms of pain or fever.
Cause of death due to complication
- Cytokine storm syndrome
- Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS)
- Fulminate myocarditis ( Cardiac affinity)
People who catch Covid-19 can be placed into four broad categories
- The least serious are those people who are subclinical and have the virus but no clinical signs.
- Those who get an infection in the upper respiratory tract have fever and cough or maybe milder symptoms like headaches or conjunctivitis.
- This is the largest group of those who would be positive for COVID-19 and people most likely to present in the hospital.
Will develop severe illness that features pneumonia
How does pneumonia develop?
The lining of the respiratory tree becomes injured, causing inflammation. This, in turn, irritates the nerves in the lining of the airway. Just a speck of dust can stimulate a cough.
But it gets worse, it goes past the lining of the airway and goes to the gas exchange unit. If they become infected they respond by pouring out inflammatory material into the air sac. If the air sac becomes inflamed this causes an outpouring of inflammatory material into the lungs and we end up with pneumonia.
In simple the symptoms are…….
- Sputum production
- Shortness of breath
- Sore throat
- Nausea and vomiting
- Nasal congestion
- Conjunctival congestion
Who is affected the most?
- Immunocompromised individuals
- Chronic disorders
- Bronchial Asthma
- Cardiovascular patients
- Old age people
Treatment of coronavirus
Nothing has postulated officially
Hospitalization only for severe cases
- Supportive treatment
- Maintain airway, breathing, circulation
- Ventilation if required
- Correction of electrolyte imbalance
- Correct temperature